Product Liability History

When we purchase a product and it falls short of our expectations, it can be very disappointing, especially if a large sum of money were used to purchase the product. But what if the product caused a traumatic injury or death to a member of our family or anyone else it came in contact with? We would be devastated. What if we found out that the manufacturer or any one involved in the making or distribution of this product knew it to be un-safe but continued to make it available to the public? We would want anyone involved in getting this product in the hands of the consumer to be held responsible Products liability is an area of law whereby a consumer of a product may seek compensation for injury or property damage allegedly caused by that product. Responsible parties may include the manufacturer, contractor, assembler, distributer or store owner. There are five theories in which a products liability claim can be made. These are express warranties, implied warranties, negligence, fraud, and strict liability.

An express warranty is a promise from the seller to the buyer that the product meets industry standards and is fit for use. Statements such as,” Satisfaction guaranteed” or “This tie is 100% silk ” are express warranties.

An implied warranty arises from the sale itself without a promise from the seller. The product is of average quality and appropriate for the purpose it was intended. In the theory of negligence, one must prove that the seller did not exercise reasonable care in the manufacture or distribution of the product or give adequate instructions for safe use. Fraud is an intentional misrepresentation of the product by the seller. Strict liability holds the manufacturer responsible regardless of whether they were at fault.

The product was defective when it left the manufacturer. Laws regulating product liability can be found in article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code.

The development of product liability laws can be traced back centuries. Product liability laws originate from English common law and tort law. A tort is a wrong committed against a person or their property. Common law refers to the standards that communities followed to govern themselves. Each court case became part of the common law, and consecutive court cases were decided using the decisions of prior court cases. All states use common law except for Louisiana, which uses France’s Napoleonic code. There are no federal laws governing product liability. The earliest common law view involved the English case of Winterbottom v. Wright in 1842 (Win 42). At this time the common law asserted the “privity limitation”. Privity refers to those in direct contact with each other. Mr.Winterbottom was employed by the Postmaster General to operate the mail coach. The mail coach fell apart and Mr. Winterbottom was injured. Mr. Wright had previously repaired the mail coach for the Postmaster General. Mr. Winterbottom sued Mr.Wright but lost. Mr. Winterbottom had no direct contact (privity) with Mr. Wright, only with the Postmaster General. Mr. Wright was however responsible for the failure of the mail coach. The court ruled against Mr. Winterbottom.

10 years later there came the case of Thomas v. Winchester (Tho 52). Mr. Winchester, a druggist, mistakenly prepared a deadly medication called belladonna and sold it to Mr. Thomas as extract of dandelion. It had been mislabeled. Mr. Thomas was not harmed, but his wife was. The court set aside the privity rule and ruled in favor of Mr. Thomas. The court held that a dangerous substance, (ingesting mislabeled poison), was very different from a defective wheel as in the Winterbottom case.

More than 70 years later came the case of MacPherson v. Buick (Mac 1916). This was the first case decision that rejected the privity rule. MacPherson alleged he was driving a Buick at 8 miles per hour when the wooden wheel broke and he was injured. Buick manufactured the automobile but another manufacturer supplied the tire. The court ruled in favor of Mr. MacPherson. The court ruled that there should be a standard for negligence cases and that whether the injury is from a defective part, as in the Winterbottom case or a deadly poison, in the Thomas case, they should be treated the same.

These are only a few of the thousands of cases that have shaped modern day product liability law. The people, their family members, and others who came in contact with unsafe products paved the way for us to have safer laws.

The 11 Forgotten Laws Review – The Truth On Bob Proctor’s Course

The 11 Forgotten Laws by Bob Proctor and Mary Morrissey is a very popular digital product today.
In this 11 Forgotten Laws review we will take a look at this product and see what are the pros and cons of it.

Before the review, let’s find out how what are The 11 Forgotten Laws.

The 11 Forgotten Laws Review – What Are The 11 Laws?

Firstly, These laws are not new. They are actually the complete principles that the whole universe based on and now even science particular quantum physics has begun to prove that.

The 11 Forgotten Laws are as follows:

* Law of Increase
* Law of Compensation
* Law of Non-Resistance
* Law of Success
* Law of Sacrifice
* Law of Obedience
* Law of Attraction
* Law of Forgiveness
* Law of Receiving
* Law of Thinking
* Law of Supply

These 11 forgotten laws actually work together with the ultimate Law of Attraction before you can achieve its effects. They do not work individually, they are interdependent and you can’t just pay attention to one law, all of them are the key to the universal flow of energy.

After clearing up this point let’s find out what exactly the 11 Forgotten Laws by Bob Proctor is and discover what are the pros and cons of this product.

The 11 Forgotten Laws Review – What Exactly Is The 11 Forgotten Laws Product?

Firstly, the 11 Forgotten Laws is a downloadable product that was created by Bob Proctor and Mary Morrissey.

The main course in this digital product is a series of 12 CD’s in which Bob Proctor and Mary Morrissey explore and expound on Raymond Holliwell’s classic book “Working With The Law”. There are also PDF transcripts, step-by-step workbook and 4 bonuses that include several eBooks, audio, and guided meditations in this product.

Overall there are 95 lessons in this package and the total length of the audio in the main program of The 11 Forgotten Laws by Bob Proctor and Mary Morrissey is close to 7 hours and all the audio comes in mp3 format that can be listened to on any computer or player such as an iPod.

Now let’s take a look at some of the pros and cons of this product.

The 11 Forgotten Laws Review – The Pros And Cons

The Pros

You Can Learn It Anywhere And In Different Methods

One great thing about this course is that you can listen to it online, download every one of the 95 audio lessons to your computer or simply burn or copy it onto your own listening device. You can take this course anywhere and listen to it on the go if you wish and you can also read the lessons on your computer or even print them if you want to.

The Product Was Made By Experts

The creators of The 11 Forgotten Laws, Mary Morrissey and Bob Proctor, have made a life’s work of the law of attraction. They have been studying it, living it and teaching about it for many years. If there was ever anyone that could be considered an “expert” on this subject it would absolutely be these two.

Unique Course With Massive Amount Of Personalization

There is no doubt that this course is educational, inspirational, and motivational course.
What makes this course very unique is the massive amount of personalization that Bob Proctor and Mary Morrissey add to their course. They genuinely believe what they teach and their customer support is very good.

60 Days Money Back Guarantee

Bob Proctor and Mary Morrissey provide 60 days full money back guarantee for their product and If you are not completely satisfied with the results, you will receive your money back.

In my opinion only those persons who are very confident that their product will be genuinely liked by their customers and fit their needs perfectly can offer this kind of guarantee.

The Cons

The Exercises

There are many powerful practices described and implied throughout This course, however I would have liked it better if the course had a clear section of exercises so you have an explicit step by step set of processes to help you integrate the course concepts at a deeper level of your being.

The Course May Be A Bit Overwhelming At First

Some people can get overwhelmed by the so much information included in The 11 Forgotten Laws. I think that it could be better if Bob Proctor and Mary Morrissey will add a printed outline or summary of each chapter of their course.

The 11 Forgotten Laws Review – The Bottom Line

I would recommend this product by Bob Proctor and Mary Morrissey to anyone who is truly interested in improving their life. People that are willing to put forth action to change their single status, control their financial life or just finding ways to be a happier may find this product to be very helpful for them.

I honestly think that if you are interested in learning how to use the law of attraction, as well as the secret law of attraction profitably, The 11 Forgotten Laws course is a great value for money.

However, bear in mind that it is not a “magic pill” and you will need to take your time and follow all the lessons by Bob Proctor and Mary Morrissey if you want to get the best results.

I hope that you find this 11 Forgotten Laws Review to be helpful for you, all the best!

Lemon Law Rights – Know Your Rights and Protection When Encountering a Lemon Car

Lemon law rights are framed to protect and guide you in case you happen to be the unlucky owner of a lemon.These rights are applicable not just for automobiles, but for a series of consumer products including puppies. These laws are defined by every state and are also present in the warranty card that you get along with your product. You may have more rights than what the dealer or manufacturer would explain it to you. Prior to 1990, when the lemon laws were not established, you would have to consider yourself unlucky if you happened to buy a defective product. But now lemon laws are completely framed and established in every state, and now no unscrupulous manufacturer or dealer can rob you of your money and time. You can use your lemon law rights to sue them and to claim proper compensation for your product.

To start with, you need to identify whether you have bought a lemon. Lemon law rights apply not only to new cars, but also to old cars and items bought in lease under the warranty period. Different states have different definitions of a lemon, but the main objective in all the states for your product to be accepted as a lemon would be: You have bought a new vehicle and within the warranty period the vehicle has undergone multiple repairs. Even if the manufacturer is not able to cure the problem before the warranty period and is not ready to provide you with a replacement or compensation you have the lemon law rights to protect you. A product is also accepted to be a lemon if it does not perform as it had claimed before you had purchased the product.

The best way to protect you from such lemon products is to have the vehicle properly checked by an expert before purchasing it. Preventing such problems is the best cure, but if you happen to buy a lemon product, most lemon laws ask you to contact the manufacturer and solve the problem with him. If the manufacturer is not able to repair the product or if he is not interested to accept your claim, then you can have your lemon law rights work for you. You can take the case to the court by yourself or you can have an expert attorney represent you. There are many firms providing advocates handling such cases. Many state laws also require the manufacturer to take up the expenses of the attorneys, so it is an economical solution.

Try to know more about your lemon law rights. The more you know, the more safe and confident you would be.